Overhead Crane Inspections
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The following are inspection guidelines as outlined in ASME B30.2 – overhead and gantry cranes and OSHA 1910.179.
Initial Inspection – New, reinstalled, altered, repaired and modified cranes shall be inspected by a designated person prior to initial use.
Frequent Inspection – Visual examinations by the operator or other designated personnel as follows:
- Cranes with normal service: monthly
- Cranes with heavy service: weekly to monthly
- Cranes with severe service: daily to weekly (records not required but suggested)
- Observation during operation
- Operating mechanisms, proper adjustment and unusual sounds
- Upper limit devices (hoist – switches)
- Tanks, valves, pumps, lines and other parts of air or hydraulic systems
- Hooks and hook latches
- Hoist roes and end connections
Rope of proper spooling onto the drum(s) and sheave(s)
Periodic Inspection – A visual inspection of the equipment in place by a designated person making records of apparent external conditions to provide the basis of continuing evaluation. The designated person shall determine whether conditions found during an inspection constitute a hazard and whether disassembly is required for additional inspection. Periodic inspection is completed annually for normal service and heavy service. Cranes with severe service shall be quarterly.
Periodic inspection shall include:
All items required in frequent inspection and the following items if applicable:
- Deformed cracked or corroded members
- Loose or missing bolts, nuts, pins, rivets
- Cracked or worn sheaves and drums
- Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, wheels, shafts, gears, locking and clamping devices, bumpers and stops
- Excessive wear on brake system parts
- Excessive wear of drive chain sprockets and excessive drive chain stretch
- Deterioration of controllers, master switches, contacts, limit switches and push button stations
- Wind indicators for proper operation
- Gasoline, diesel, electric or other power plants for proper operation
- Motion limit devices that interrupt power or cause a warning to be activated for proper performance (each motion shall be inched or operated at low speed into the limit device with no load on the crane)
- Rope reeving for compliance with crane manufacturer’s design
- All function, instruction, caution and warning labels or plates for legibility and replacement
Records from periodic inspections shall be made on critical items such as hoisting machinery, sheaves, hooks, chains, ropes and other lifting devices. Records shall be placed on file.
Cranes not In Regular Service
A crane that is used infrequently or which has been idle for a period of one more month or more but less than one year shall be inspected before being placed in service using the guidelines outlined in Frequent Inspection.
Load Testing – All new, reinstalled, altered, repaired and modified cranes should be load tested prior to initial use.